Questionnaire 1:

Before completing this questionnaire, please read Cardio Update article: Common Cardiac Issues in Newborn Infants By Michael E.McConnell, M.D.


1. Most patients diagnosed with a patent foramen ovale or a small PDA in the newborn period DO NOT need additional cardiac evaluation.


True
False


2. Echogenic foci seen on fetal ultrasound are common and are usually benign.


True
False


3. The most common cause of an irregular heartbeat in the newborn period is premature ventricular contractions. (PVCs)


True
False


4. Most muscular ventricular septal defects require surgical closure.


True
False


5. The majority of muscular ventricular septal defects close within the first 2 years of life.


True
False